All measurements were carried out by means of radial type diffusion passive samplers (Radiello, charcoal type for VOCs and DNPH-covered fluorisil cartridges for selective sampling of carbonyl compounds).
Suitability, precision and accuracy of the samplers have been described in literature . The passive samplers were installed inside and outside the buildings (and collected simultaneously after 7 days) and were also used for personal exposure monitoring for a period of 3 days. Altogether, this gave an exposure time of about 168 h for each reported measurement of confined environments and 72 h for those of personal exposure. After the campaign, the volunteers sent the exposed cartridges to the laboratory at the Joint Research Centre where they were analysed for their content of aromatics and aldehydes. The diffusion constant was corrected for temperature (measured with data-loggers in the various environments). The temperature of the personal exposure measurements was assumed to be 22°C for all the volunteers.
A set of chemical compound classes (aromatics, carbonyls, terpenes) including priority indoor volatile organic compounds as established by the INDEX project (Kotzias et al, 2005) were selected for outdoor, indoor and personal exposure monitoring in field campaigns in the various European cities.
Field monitoring campaigns (cities, dates and chemicals investigated) of public buildings and schools/kindergartens
|CITY||DATE OF CAMPAIGNS||CHEMICALS MONITOREDc|
|Arnhem/Nijmegen||March 2004/August 2006||
|Athens||December 2003/October 2005|
|Brusselsa||May 2004/September 2004|
|Budapest||May 2007/January 2008|
|Catania||October 2003/May 2004|
|Dublin||May 2007/February 2008|
|Helsinki||August 2007/March 2008|
|Leipzig||April 2005/July 2006|
|Nicosia||July 2004b/January 2007|
|Thessaloniki||November 2004/May 2006
On-site analyses of relevant interior surfaces were also considered, thus gathering information on their emissions. Analysis of these data combined with those of the indoor/outdoor air environment qualitatively determined the main sources of indoor air pollutants. The extracts of the activated charcoal cartridges were analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The extracts from the DNPH-covered florisil cartridges were analysed by HPLC-UV/VIS.
- Angiuli, L. et al., Radial Passive Samplers for Air Quality Monitoring in Field Comparison with BTEX Automatic Analyzers. Preliminary Results., Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2003, Vol. 12, No. 10, 1167-1172