The impact of disease in a population. An approach to the analysis of health problems, including loss of healthy years of life. It is an important concept for public health and for other professions interested in the societal impact of ill-health, including injuries and disabilities. It may be expressed as lost Healthy Life Years (HeaLYs), Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), or Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). Use of indicators that integrate the societal burden caused by both death and morbidity allows for the comparison of the burden due to various risk factors or diseases. Source: Porta M. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2008. See IHCP's disclaimer on external sources
A branch or subspecialty of epidemiology that studies factors influencing the occurrence (e.g., incidence, population distribution) of neoplastic and pre-neoplastic diseases and related disorders. Primary outcomes include incidence, prevalence, survival, and mortality from all types of cancers. Source: Porta M. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2008. See IHCP's disclaimer on external sources
In epidemiology the term 'register' is applied to the file of data concerning all cases of a particular disease or other health-relevant condition in a defined population such that the cases can be related to a population base. With this information, incidence rates can be calculated. If the cases are regularly followed up, information on remission, exacerbation, prevalence, and survival can also be obtained. The register is the actual document and the registry is the system of ongoing registration. 'Cancer registries' secure reports of cancer patients. Source: Porta M. A Dictionary of Epidemiology. 5th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2008. See IHCP's disclaimer on external sources
Carbon fullerenes (also termed C60, Buckminsterfullerene, or buckyballs) [...] describe 60 linked carbon atoms in a highly stable icosahedron, consisting of 60 vertices and 32 (12 pentagonal and 20 hexagonal) faces. Consequently, carbon fullerenes have a spherical cage-like structure and have a diameter of about 1 nm and thus can be defined as a nanomaterial. Fullerene production can occur naturally as they can be released from combustion processes such as forest fires. Alternatively, there has been an increase in the intentional production of fullerenes due to the realization that novel exploitable properties are exhibited by materials that contain “nano” dimensions (< 100 nm), and as a result, the use of C60 is being considered for drug delivery and recently within a number of cosmetic products, such as face creams. Fullerenes therefore conform to the definition of a nanomaterial, whereby they contain a dimension of less than 100 nm, which gives rise to unique novel properties to enable their exploitation within numerous applications. Source: Aschberger K, Johnston HJ, Stone V, Aitken RJ, Tran CL, Hankin SM, Peters SAK, Christensen FM, 2010. Review of fullerene toxicity and exposure – a human health risk assessment appraisal based on open literature. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 58(3):455-473. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.08.017
Buckminsterfullerene is a spherical molecule with the formula C60. It was first prepared in 1985 by Harold Kroto, James Heath, Sean O'Brien, Robert Curl and Richard Smalley at Rice University. Kroto, Curl, and Smalley were awarded the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their roles in the discovery of buckminsterfullerene and the related class of molecules, the fullerenes. The name is an homage to Richard Buckminster Fuller, whose geodesic domes it resembles. Buckminsterfullerene was the first fullerene molecule discovered and it is also the most common in terms of natural occurrence, as it can be found in small quantities in soot. Source: Wikipedia See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties, making them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics, and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They may also have applications in the construction of body armor. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient thermal conductors. Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family, which also includes the spherical buckyballs. The ends of a nanotube may be capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure. Their name is derived from their size, since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50,000th of the width of a human hair), while they can be up to 18 centimeters in length (as of 2010). Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs). Source: Wikipedia
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide or radiation, that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes. Source: Wikipedia See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites Chemicals are defined as carcinogenic if they induce tumours, increase tumour incidence and/or malignancy or shorten the time to tumour occurrence. Traditionally, carcinogens have been identified from epidemiological studies or from animal experiments. Carcinogenic chemicals have conventionally been divided into two broad categories based of the presumed mode of action: genotoxic or non-genotoxic. Genotoxic carcinogens cause damage by interacting directly with DNA – many known mutagens are in this category. In contrast, non-genotoxic carcinogens cause “epigenetic” changes, i.e. effects that do not involve alterations in DNA but that may influence the carcinogenic process. The mechanistic understanding of the carcinogenic process differs considerably between the two modes of action. The distinction is not absolute – chemicals can be carcinogenic by both models of action. Source: JRC Technical Report Review of QSAR Models and Software Tools for Predicting Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity EUR 24427 EN - 2010.
Can be established with standardisation bodies: ISO, IEC or ISO/IEC JTC1 "Category A Liaison" is granted to organizations that make an effective contribution to the work of the technical committee or subcommittee for questions dealt with by this technical committee or subcommittee. Such organizations are sent copies of all relevant documentation and are invited to meetings. They may nominate experts to participate in a Working Group/Project Team. Source: ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1:2009 (Procedures for the technical work) (PDF format), subclause 126.96.36.199
Cell transformation is defined as the acquisition of certain malignant characteristics in morphology, behavior, growth control or function, and induced by chemical carcinogens in vitro. Transformation occurs as a result of comprehensive cellular responses to direct and indirect damage to DNA, genes and cellular machinery, including altered gene expression and signal transduction. A cell transformation assay is an in vitro assay measuring the phenotypic conversion from normal to malignant characteristics in mammalian cells exposed to test chemicals, and capable of detecting non-genotoxic as well as genotoxic carcinogens. Source:Sakai et al., 2002 SeeIHCP's disclaimer on linked sites
CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) is a major provider of European Standards and technical specifications. It is the only recognized European organization according to Directive 98/34/EC for the planning, drafting and adoption of European Standards in all areas of economic activity with the exeption of electrotechnology (CENELEC) and telecommunication (ETSI). CEN's 31 National Members work together to develop voluntary European Standards (ENs). These standards have a unique status since they also are national standards in each of its 31 Member countries. With one common standard in all these countries and every conflicting national standard withdrawn, a product can reach a far wider market with much lower development and testing costs. ENs help build a European Internal Market for goods and services and position Europe in the global economy. More than 60.000 technical experts as well as business federations, consumer and other societal interest organizations are involved in the CEN network that reaches over 480 million people. Source: CEN web site. See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites
1. A process by which an individual or healthcare organisation is recognised by an authorised agency as meeting predetermined requirements, beyond those set for licensure or met by similar individuals or organisations. Source: S.A. Buetow - Qual Saf Health Care 2003 12: 129-135
2.Certification: third-party attestation related to products, processes, management systems or persons. Source: International Organization for Standardization- ISO/IEC 17000 See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites
Chlorpyrifos (IUPAC name: O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl phosphorothioate) is a crystalline organophosphate insecticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase and is used to control insect pests. It is known by many trade names. Chlorpyrifos is moderately toxic and chronic exposure has been linked to neurological effects, developmental disorders, and autoimmune disorders. Source: Wikipedia
The new CLP Regulation (Regulation on classification, labelling and packaging), entered into force on 20 January 2009, aligns existing EU legislation to the United Nations Globally Harmonised System (GHS). CLP contributes to the GHS aim that the same hazards will be described and labelled in the same way all around the world. By using internationally agreed classification criteria and labelling elements, CLP is expected to facilitate trade and to contribute towards global efforts to protect humans and the environment from hazardous effects of chemicals. It complements the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation (EC No 1907/2006). See text of Regulation on classification, labelling and packaging ("CLP Regulation") Source: Europa, CLP Regulation on DG Enterprise & Industry web site
Colony forming efficiencyassay and micronucleusanalysis are two in vitro assays able to identify if a compound is cytotoxic (able to kill cells) or genotoxic (able to induce a damage to DNA), respectively.
The Construction Products Directive(CPD) (Council Directive 89/106/EEC of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products - OJ L 40, 11.2.1989, p.12) applies to construction products, i.e. any products produced with a view to their incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works. The purpose of the Construction Products Directive is to ensure the free movement of all construction products within the European Union by harmonising national laws with respect to the essential requirements applicable to these products in terms of health and safety. Source: Europa, Enterprise & Industry web site
In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, cyclotron frequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction. Since that motion is always circular, the cyclotron frequency is well defined. Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles to spiral almost in a circle so that they re-encounter the accelerating voltage many times. Source: Wikipedia. See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites
The ECVAM DataBase service on ALternative Methods (DB-ALM)is an instrument aimed at implementing the communication and dissemination strategy of the Joint Research Centre on animal alternatives, as requested by the European Commission and the European Parliament (*). The DB-ALM includes a unique collection of data-sets providingfactualinformation (not only bibliographic references) presented asevaluated (and therefore ready-to-use)data sheets. Its rationale is to provide an overall picture on the state-of-the-art of alternative methods in use at all stages of development including EU Integrated Project results, validation or regulatory acceptance for a given topic area. The DB-ALM covers:
- Method Descriptions: i)Method-Summarieswith information on their objective and applications, scientific rationale and endpoints investigated, advantages and potential shortcomings including their status of development, validation and/or regulatory acceptance, and ii)Protocolsproviding more detailed technical step-by-step descriptions to allow the method to be transferred to laboratories. - Study Descriptions:Evaluationand formalValidation Studies, - Test Results:Substance specific tests are described with their results - Persons & Institutionsactive in the field of alternative methods The DB-ALM can refer to over 2800 subscribed users from 82 countries. See alsothis site and the DB-ALM website http://ecvam-dbalm.jrc.ec.europa.eu/ (*)Communication from Commission to European Parliament and Council - SEC(91)1794andDirective 2010/63/EUof the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 September 2010 on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, Article 48, Annex VII (2)(d), OJ L Nr. 276/33, 20.10.2010.
DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is one of the most well-known synthetic insecticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history. First synthesized in 1874, DDT's insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939, and it was used with great success in the second half of World War II to control malaria and typhus among civilians and troops. The Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods." After the war, DDT was made available for use as an agricultural insecticide, and soon its production and use skyrocketed. In 1962, 'Silent Spring' by American biologist Rachel Carson was published. The book catalogued the environmental impacts of the indiscriminate spraying of DDT in the US and questioned the logic of releasing large amounts of chemicals into the environment without fully understanding their effects on ecology or human health. The book suggested that DDT and other pesticides may cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly birds. Its publication was one of the signature events in the birth of the environmental movement, and resulted in a large public outcry that eventually led to DDT being banned in the US in 1972.DDT was subsequently banned for agricultural use worldwide under the Stockholm Convention, but its limited use in disease vector control continues to this day and remains controversial. Source: Wikipedia
A model based on the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (or DEB-theory). The Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory aims to identify simple quantitative rules for the organization of metabolism of individual organisms that can be understood from basic first principles. The word "dynamic" refers to the life cycle perspective of the theory, where the budget changes dynamically over time. Source: Wikipedia See IHCP's disclaimer on linked sites.
As the Commission's in-house science
service, the Joint Research Centre's mission is to
provide EU policies with independent, evidence-based scientific and technical
support throughout the whole policy cycle.
Working in close cooperation with policy Directorates-General,
the JRC addresses key societal challenges while stimulating innovation through developing new methods, tools and standards,
and sharing its know-how with the Member States,
the scientific community and international partners. Key policy areas include: environment and climate change; energy and
transport; agriculture and food security;
health and consumer protection; information society and digital agenda; safety and security, including nuclear; all supported
through a cross-cutting and multidisciplinary approach.